Sunday, November 15, 2009

Passenger Briefings

I'm surprised at how little information is present in the usual student reference sources regarding the provision of passenger briefings.

I could not find anything in the AIM.

FTM has one paragraph, p.39:

  • Seat belts and shoulder harnesses,
  • Smoking limitations,
  • How the doors work,
  • What actions to take in the event of an emergency landing,
  • Location and use of emergency exits, the ELT, the fire extinguisher, the first aid kit, and any other emergency items that may be in the aircraft (survival kits, life vests, life rafts, etc).

FTGU has one line, on p.315

  • Brief passengers: door, seat belts, prop hazard, ELT.

The CARS has, of course, the definitive requirements. CARS 602.89:

  • Location and means of operation of normal and emergency exits,
  • Location and means of operation of seat belts, shoulder harnesses and restraint devices,
  • Position of seats, and securing of seat back and chair tables,
  • Stowage of carry-on baggage,
  • Use of oxygen, if flight is planned to an altitude where oxygen is required,
  • Any prohibition against smoking,
  • If an over-water flight, the location and use of flotation devices, before the over-water portion has commenced,
  • Location and use of first aid kits and survival equipment,
  • Location and use of the ELT.

And passenger briefings are detailed in one more spot - the flight test guide itself (TP13723E):

  • Use of seat belts,
  • The location and use of emergency exits (but regular exits are not mentioned),
  • ELT,
  • Fire extinguisher,
  • Passenger considerations for aircraft evacuation (which generally means "to the tail good, towards the engine bad"),
  • Action to take in the event of an emergency landing,
  • Smoking limitations,
  • Items specific to the airplane being used (the Diamond Eclipse had a pointy hammer which could be used to break the plastic canopy so it can be used as an emergency exit,
  • Other items for use in an emergency (first aid kit, life vests, etc).

Aircraft Documents

To be legal for flight in Canada, the following documents are required on a powered aircraft in Canada:

  • A - certificate of Airworthiness
  • R - certificate of Registration
  • R - Radio station license (not required for flights solely within Canada)
  • O - pilot Operating handbook
  • W - Weight and balance calculation

  • J - Journey log
  • I - Insurance
  • L - personal Licences (license, medical, radio operator certificate)
  • I - Intercept procedures

Certificate of Airworthiness

See CARS 507, AIM LRA 2.0, FTGU Ch. 5
  • Is issued by Transport Canada, certifying that the original design is airworthy,
  • Is issued when the aircraft is built, or imported into the country,
  • Remains with the aircraft until the aircraft is exported or destroyed
  • An Annual Airworthiness Information Report must be filed with Transport Canada on/before the anniversary date of the CofA. A copy of the AAIR does not need to be kept on board, but failure to file the AAIR will automatically expire the CofA.
For the CofA to be in force, the aircraft has to be airworthy at the time of the flight:
  • Periodic inspections must be up to date (annual for private aircraft, every 50 hours for commercial),
  • Airworthiness Directives must be up to date,
  • Defects which affect airworthiness must be repaired, or signed off as "deferred" by an AME,
  • The aircraft must be operated in compliance with the POH and with regulations, meaning that all equipment required for the planned flight must be installed and functioning, the weight and balance must be within the limits specified in the CofA, required emergency equipment is installed.

Certificate of Registration

See CARS 222, AIM LRA 1.0

Is issued by Transport Canada and is valid for the life of the aircraft and must be carried on board (CARS 202.26), unless:

  • There is a change of owner, in which case the seller must complete and mail the postcard section of the CofR within 7 days. The buyer must complete the Application for Registration form on the CofR to apply for a new CofR, mail the white copy and keep the pink copy. The pink copy is the interim CofR, for a maximum of 3 months after the transfer or until the permanent CofR is received (or unless the aircraft is subsequently sold again).
  • There is a change of address, in which case the owner must notify TC by completing and mailing the postcard section of the CofR.
  • There is a change of purpose (private to commercial, or vice-versa).
  • There is a change of nationality. An aircraft can be registered in only one country at a time.
  • The aircraft is destroyed (notify Transport Canada).

Radio Station License

A Radio Station License is issued to an aircraft by Transport Canada. However, carrying this licence on board the aircraft is not required provided the flight is carried our solely within Canada. It must be carried on board for International flights.

Pilot Operating Handbook

See CARS 605.04

The POH not only must be on board, but it also must:

  • Be available to the flight crew members at their duty stations (e.g. as a pilot I need to be able to reach it when I need it in flight, as opposed to having it buried in baggage compartment),
  • It must have all the required supplements and amendments.
Weight and Balance

See CARS Standard 571 Appendix C

Each aircraft is weight after manufacture, and after each modification which could change the weight and balance. The W&B printed in the POH is the manufacturer's standard for the fleet. The current W&B for the specific aircraft is contained in the journey log, and all previous W&B reports must be marked as "Amended" (which is the pilot's trigger to go look for something more current).

A W&B report for the specific flight (e.g. one which includes the actual fuel, human and baggage load) must be calculated and carried on board. This document will prove that the aircraft is being operated in compliance with it's CofA.

Journey Log

See CARS 605.94, 605 Schedule 1

The CARS are very specific about the requirement for the Journey Log, what needs to be entered, and when it needs to be entered. There are specific provisions for continuity in the Journey Log (knowing that there are no missing logs).

See CARS 605.95

The Journey Log needs to be carried on board the aircraft except when it is planned that the aircraft will not land and shut down at another aerodrome.


CARS 606.02 specifies how much liability insurance must be carried.

CARS 606.02 (9) states the the proof of insurance must be carried on board (unless it is a hot air balloon)

Personal Licenses (License, Medical, Radio Operator Certificate)

See CARS 401

"While acting as a member of a Flight Crew, the individual must be able to produce the appropriate permit, license or rating AND a valid and appropriate medical certificate." (CARS 401.03)

Pilot License

A pilot license in itself is not a time-limited document (though a student permit has a lifetime of 5 years). However, for the license to be valid the pilot also has to carry a valid medical certificate, and for the pilot to utilize the license (fly an aircraft) the individual has to meet the required recency and currency requirements (CARS 401.05).


Fixed-wing aeroplanes are operated on a pilot license under a Class 1 or Class 3 medical (pilot permits require only a class 4 medical). Medicals must be renewed every 6, 12, 24 or 60 months, depending on the permit, license or rating type, and the age of the individual - see CARS 404.04.

Radio Operator Certificate

If an individual will operate the aircraft radio, then the individual must be carrying a Radio Operator Certificate (which may be restricted to aviation operations). Radio Operator Certificates are issued by Industry Canada, not Transport Canada - they call it a "Restricted Operator Certificate with Aeronautical Qualification (ROC-A).

Intercept Orders

Not legally required to be carried on board, but a darn good idea in case an F-18 appears off your wing. A copy appears on the last pages of the CFS.

Tuesday, November 03, 2009

After another layoff


Another month of no flying - some family time, some vacation time, lots of work, and a bit of weather and suddenly it has been a month.

Today I had the aircraft booked for a dual cross-country to Kingston and Brockville, however the low cloud base precluded the cross-country trip. We flew circuits instead, exercising the landing gear.

  • I have no issues or problems with normal and short-field take-offs, with and without obstacles, and we reviewed them and performed them.
  • Crosswind takeoffs require a crosswind, which we did not have today,
  • I have performed soft-field takeoffs in the Diamond Eclipse, but from a hard surface the high performance of that aircraft meant you were well airborne before you knew it -- and so my soft-field takeoff was under-practiced.

For each circuit I performed a normal landing - no sense trying the "specialty" landings unless you have the normal landings working smoothly.

After a few circuits demonstrating and practicing the short-field and normal take-offs, the instructor hopped out and I proceeded to grind out circuits. I got in a few short-field take-offs, but the airport was getting busy so stop&go landings would be very disruptive, so I reverted to normal touch&go landings.

Time: 0.8 dual, 0.7 solo
Landings: 3 dual, 9 solo

Summary: Landings improved significantly after the practice.



Today's objective was to get some in-aircraft instrument time, under the foggles.

Launch, and up to the practice area over Aylmer. I was under the foggles just north of the casino, just after we passed the Gatineau River (lots of southbound traffic from the practice area comes down the river, so it is a good thing to have two sets of non-distracted eyes outside the aircraft until we get past this point.

  • Flew eyes closed for about 4 minutes, using only my sense of balance and hearing to keep the aircraft straight and level. I surprisingly didn't go into a spiral dive or a descent, so the objective of the exercise did not work (it was supposed to teach me that human senses are entirely adequate for doing human things like walking or standing, but not adequate for operating non-human high-speed machinery). I had it easy - the air was absolutely smooth, and the aircraft was very well trimmed. However, I did manage to make an undetected 110 degree left turn, when I thought I was flying straight.
  • Under the foggles, did a number of climbs, descents, level turns, climbing and descending turns, and other basic aircraft movements.
  • Under the foggles, flew straight&level for 2-3 minutes, then did a shallow-banked 180-degree turn, then flew straight and level in the opposite direction. This is the standard procedure to follow when one has mistakenly flew into cloud, and is a flight test item.

Time: 1.0 Dual, 0.4 Instrument



New type of aircraft, new airspace, right-hand circuits, a layoff from flight... all of them combine to make landings a bit dodgy. One of the first things to do is to grind out some circuits and get the approach much happier.

Started with a new instructor (ML, who was to become my primary instructor), and we went up for a demonstration, then I flew four circuits.

My original struggles in performing a landing (touching down on the centre of the runway, landing with yaw) have disappeared, hopefully to never return.

However, I found that I was allowing myself to get rushed on the circuit and final, and so that nice long stabilization period that I should be experiencing on final was instead consumed by getting the aircraft down, managing the speed, and lining up with the centre line.

I had talked to several instructors about their speed management in the circuit, when they reduce throttle, put out flaps, and so forth, and they all vary BUT they all start early.

Clearly that's the key, and that's what I need to incorporate.

After four circuits with the instructor, he hopped out and I flew another 5 circuits solo. Getting better.

Time: 0.9 dual, 0.5 solo.
Landings: 9

Summary: Just work on it. The landings are safe but rushed - they will improve once I get into the groove of getting most of the work done before the final approach.

Mind the Gap

So my last post was July 15th, about flying activities on July 10th. Since then I have 21 entries in my logbook. Ooooops.

Quick status:
  • I'll get a short posting about each flight posted (members of my family follow this blog to understand what I have been up to),
  • I am very happy with Rockcliffe Flying Club, and have continued my training there,
  • I've flown five different C172 aircraft, as well as the simulator. Each aircraft is unique, either in their original configuration, or because of the variances in equipment and layout that have crept in over the years,
  • I have completed my solo cross-country hours. Flew the dual with my instructor to Kingston and an overflight of Brockville, then (on the seventh attempt, but that's another story) flew it solo with only a touch&go in Brockville. Subsequently flew the same circuit, again solo, adding the full stop in Brockville.
  • Wrote and passed the PPL written examination,
  • Spoke and passed the english proficiency test,
  • Am in the home stretch for the PPL flight test.

Posting to resume shortly, both as a summary of each flight (which will have to be short out of necessity), as well as the examination/skill items for the upcoming flight review and flight test.